Understanding Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST)

Central Goods and Services Tax abbreviated as CGST is a core part of the GST framework, which amalgamated several former taxes into a single tax system to mitigate the issue of double taxation and make tax compliance simpler and more transparent. Unlike its counterparts — the State Goods and Services Tax (SGST) and the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) — CGST is levied by the central government on intra-state supplies of goods and services.

The Genesis of GST and CGST

The genesis of GST was an effort to unify the country's fragmented tax system under a "One Nation, One Tax" regime. The journey from proposal to implementation, culminating in the historic midnight session of Parliament on July 1, 2017, reflects years of negotiations and consensus-building among states and the central government.

How CGST Works ?

CGST, alongside SGST, is charged on all intra-state transactions. The revenue collected under CGST is for the central government, while SGST goes to the state where the goods or services are consumed. This dual model ensures a balanced revenue sharing model between the central and state governments without burdening the consumer with double taxation.

CGST Rate Structure and Compliance

The CGST rate is part of a multi-tiered structure, carefully crafted to suit different goods and services with considerations for essential commodities and luxury items. Compliance mechanisms under CGST involve monthly filings, digital invoices, and a comprehensive input tax credit system to ensure transparency and ease of doing business.

The CGST rates are determined by the GST Council, which is a constitutional body comprising the Union Finance Minister and the Finance Ministers of all the states. The CGST rates vary depending on the nature of the goods or services supplied. The current CGST rate is 9%

Impact on Businesses

For businesses, the shift to CGST and GST at large meant overhauling their tax compliance systems, but it also offered a silver lining in the form of input tax credits, a wider market reach, and a reduction in the overall tax burden. Small and medium enterprises, in particular, benefited from the composition scheme under GST, easing their compliance requirements.

Challenges and Solutions

Despite its benefits, CGST's rollout was not without challenges. From technological glitches in the GST portal to confusion over tax rates and compliance procedures, businesses and the government had to navigate through initial teething problems. The blog would delve into how these challenges were addressed, including the role of the GST Council in continuously refining the framework.


As India marches forward in its journey of economic reform, CGST will undoubtedly play a crucial role in shaping the country's tax landscape. By simplifying the tax structure, broadening the tax base, and promoting compliance, CGST has set the stage for a more transparent, efficient, and equitable tax system. The ongoing journey of CGST is not just about tax collection but about fostering a conducive environment for growth, innovation, and prosperity across India's economic spectrum.